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Weiner's Attribution Theory
1.  Basic Assumptions:
    -Prior learning acts as building blocks to increasingly complex learning.
    -Learners are diverse and learning is not a single process.
    -Learning is achieved by creating causal inferences.
     -Learner motivation is affected by whether the learner attributes success or failure to a skill or ability (Gredler, 2001).

2.  Components of the Theory:
    -Learner motivation is determined by  the idea of what the learned outcome will be and the functionality of the skill
(Gredler, 2001).
    -Attributions may influence motivation through expectancy of future outcomes or emotional reactions associated with the outcome (Weiner, 1985).
    -Three dimension taxonomy for classifying attributes; locus of causality (internal or external), stability of causality (changable or unwavering), and responsibility of the student (controlable or uncontrollable) (Albert & Luzzo, 1999).  

3.  Basic Instructional Assumptions:
    -Learners' search for understanding and what learners attribute past behavioral outcomes to are both sources of motivation (Gredler, 2001).

4.  Components of Instruction and Instructional Strategies:
    -Teachers must provide positive feedback because this is an important factor in student perceptions of their ability (Barker & Graham, 1987).  For example, teachers could provide positive notes to all students and parents to encourage students.
    -Teachers must treat all students equally and consistently.

5.  Other Educational Issues:
    -Causal beliefs about past success and failure are the chief determinants of learner motivation.
    -Failure-oriented students are not as ready for new learning and are more likely to attribute their failure to personal ability (Gredler, 2001).
    -The social context for learning affects how the learner attributes causes for his/her success and failure.  Reaction of peers and teachers can determine whether a student attributes failure to lack of ability (sympathy) or lack of effort (anger).